APRS Resources

1935 APRS Annual Report

Association for the Preservation of Rural Scotland (A.P.R.S.) 

ANNUAL REPORT 1935 

3 FORRES STREET.. EDINBURGH, 3 Telephone, 30317 

ASSOCIATION FOR THE PRESERVATION 

OF RURAL SCOTLAND

Table of Contents

OFFICE BEARERS

THE COUNCIL

REPRESENTATIVES OF CONSTITUENT BODIES

REPRESENTATIVES OF AFFILIATED SOCIETIES

INTRODUCTION

THE COUNCIL

OFFICE PREMISES

PARLIAMENTARY AMENITY COMMITTEE

COUNTRY VISITS

ROADS AND BRIDGES

THE POLLUTION OF RIVERS

NATIONAL PARKS

CITY PARKS

PARKS NEAR TO A CITY

NATIONAL PARK

FINANCE

ADMINISTRATION

EXHIBITIONS AND LANTERN LECTURES

BRANCHES

FINANCES

THE ASSOCIATION FOR THE PRESERVATION OF RURAL SCOTLAND STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS

OFFICE BEARERS 

Honorary President 

The Rt. Hon. THE EARL OF CRAWFORD & BALCARRES, K.T. 

President 

The Rt. Hon. THE EARL OF HADDINGTON, M.C. 

Joint Vice-Presidents 

. Sir JOHN STIRLING MAXWELL, Bt., K.T. Sir IAIN COLQUHOUN, Bt., D.S.O. 

Chairman of Council 

Hon. W. T. H. SCOTT, MASTER OF POLWARTH 

Joint Hon. Secretaries 

F. C. MEARS, F.R.I.B.A. LESLIE G. THOMSON, A.R.I.B.A. 

Hon. Treasurer 

Professor F. G. BAILY, M.A., M.I.E.E., etc. 

Organising Secretary 

KENNETH FERGUSON 

OFFICE: 3 FORRES STREET, EDINBURGH (see note below) 

Telephone 30317 

N.B.-The Offices of the Association will be moved on 28th May 1935 to 44 Queen Street. The telephone number will be the same. 

 

THE COUNCIL 

Chairman-Hon. W. T. H. SCOTT, MASTER OF POLWARTH 

The Most Hon. THE MAR- CHIONESS OF ABERDEEN AND 

TEMAIR. 

The Right Hon. THE COUNTESS 

OF MINTO. 

Sir ROBERT GREIG. 

Mrs G. HEDDERWICK. 

H. R. G. INGLIS. 

W. H. JOHNSON. 

T. MACKINTOSH. 

Lord Provost HENRY ALEX- J. D. MONRO. 

ANDER (Aberdeen). 

W. F. ARBUCKLE. 

Prof. F. G. BAILY. 

J. BARTHOLOMEW. 

H. MORTIMER BATTEN. 

B. HALL BLYTH. 

GEORGE CALVERT. 

Sir D. Y. CAMERON. 

The Right Hon. THE EARL OF 

CASSILLIS. 

G. CONNOR. 

Mrs COWAN. 

Miss I. F. GRANT. 

G. OGILVY. 

B. N. H. ORPHOOT. 

J. WILSON PATERSON. 

The Right Hon. LORD POL- 

WARTH. 

Rev. A. E. ROBERTSON. 

J. M. RUSK. 

Capt. W. P. M. RUSSELL, M.C. 

D. GORDON SHIELDS. 

Major S. STRANG STEEL. Sir JOHN SUTHERLAND. 

P. THOMSEN. 

W, GRANT WM. WALKER. 

Sir W. E. WHYTE. 

Ex-Officio Members 

The Lady GEORGE CAMPBELL, President, Cowal Committee. The Right Hon. THE EARL OF GALLOWAY, Chairman, Galloway 

Branch. 

Lt. Col. ARCHIBALD STIRLING, Chairman, Stirling and District 

Branch. 

The Right Hon. THE EARL OF MORAY, President, Moray and 

Nairn Branch. 

The Right Hon. THE EARL OF HADDINGTON, Chairman, Border 

Branch. 

Sir JOHN JARDINE, Bt., President, Dumfriesshire Branch. 

Also Branch Secretaries (vide list on p. 20). 

REPRESENTATIVES OF CONSTITUENT BODIES 

Society Cockburn Association. Council for the Preservation of Rural 

England. 

Highland and Agricultural Society of 

Scotland. 

Institution of Municipal and County 

Engineers. National Trust 

Pure Rivers Society 

Representative Member of Council Prof. F. G. Baily. 

Sir Henry Fairfax-Lucy, Bt. 

The Hon. Walter T. H. Scott 

(Master of Polwarth). 

W. A. Macartney, A.M.I.C.E. 

Sir John Stirling Maxwell, Bt., 

K.T. (Corresponding Society). 

Royal Incorporation of Architects in John Begg, F.R.I.B.A. 

Scotland. 

Royal Scottish Academy 

G. Pirie, P.R.S.A. 

Royal Scottish Geographical Society Royal Scottish Society of Painters in Water 

Colours. 

Scottish Anglers’ Association. Scottish Estate Factors’ Society Scottish Land and Property Federation Scottish Motor Trade 

Scottish Mountaineering Club 

J. Bartholomew. 

Capt. A. E. Borthwick. 

C. H. Dodds. 

Gen. Sir Robert Gordon Gilmour, Bt. 

Malcolm Matheson. 

Scottish National Housing and Town James Norval. 

Planning Committee. Scottish Ramblers’ Federation 

Will Grant. 

G. D. Cheyne. 

Scottish Rights of Way and Recreation 

Society. 

Scottish Society for the Protection of Wild 

Birds. 

Scottish Youth Hostels Association.. Smoke Abatement League of Great 

Britain. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Society of Scottish Artists Zoological Society of Scotland 

J. Smellie Martin. 

J. H. Burr. 

W. Brownhill-Smith. 

. G. P. H. Watson. 

W. M. Glass. 

REPRESENTATIVES OF AFFILIATED SOCIETIES 

British Association 

Deeside Field Club 

(Corresponding Society). 

J. Bentley Philip. 

East Lothian Antiquarian and Field H. Mortimer Batten. 

Naturalists’ Society. 

Flora’s League 

Falkirk Rotary Club 

Glasgow Civic Society 

Rev. A. B. Robb. 

Sir Maurice Abbot-Anderson. Walter Scott. 

Glasgow and West of Scotland Ramblers’ A. M’Gillivray. 

Federation. 

Hamilton and District Civic Society 

Holyrood Club . 

Scottish Arts Club 

Fred Smith. 

. T. Henderson, C.B.E. 

. D. Gordon Shields. 

The Association for the Preservation of Rural Scotland ANNUAL REPORT, 1935 

THE Council has pleasure in submitting the Annual Report of the Association, together with a Statement of Finances, for the year ended 31st December 1934. 

Cordial thanks are again due to the office-bearers of the Associa- tion for their personal services during the course of the year. 

The Council also desires to thank the Carnegie United Kingdom Trustees for continued support, and for extending the period of financial assistance for an additional three years at the termination of the present financial year. The Trustees have considerately allocated a further sum of £3000 to the Rural Preservation Move- ment in England, Scotland, and Wales, of which Scotland will receive £1000 in 1936-1938. For the present year, which ends the original five-year period, a grant of £400 continues. 

The Press also has to be warmly thanked for its unfailing interest in the objects of the Association. 

INTRODUCTION 

There is undoubted evidence in the period under review that problems of amenity are to-day receiving closer and more wide- spread attention than was the case a few years ago. Indeed it would be surprising if continuous effort on the part of bodies such as the A.P.R.S., and kindred Societies voicing the aspirations of a great volume of cultured public opinion throughout the country, should not have had this effect. The great matter is that serious thought should be given to such problems, and there need be no despondency if achievement lags behind endeavour, for that is its natural place. Thus, in spite of all the difficulties and stumbling-blocks which are encountered in a period of change and financial stringency, such as that through which the nation is passing, it would seem that there are good grounds for a hope- ful outlook and for perseverance in our endeavour. In many respects the community is learning by mistakes, which were clearly foreseen and opposed by those whose special function it is to consider amenity. For example, the evil of “Ribbon” develop- ment, an obvious malaise, social, economic, and aesthetic, due largely to defective planning (or no planning at all), has reached such a pitch, especially in the South, as to warrant attention in the King’s Speech. The Government is under an obligation to grapple with the problem. Moreover, Housing Amenity, or conversely the failure in many situations to attain satisfactory standards in respect of layout and design, is the subject of present inquiry by a Scottish Committee set up by Government under the Department of Health. The Report of this Committee, on which architectural members of the A.P.R.S. Council are acting, will shortly appear, and, it is hoped, will prove an illuminating contribution towards better practice. It must be remembered that an immense building programme has yet to be overtaken, not only in the large cities, but in country towns and in rural areas. Planned development would obviate waste in public expenditure, but it becomes apparent that the involved Town and Country Planning Act of 1932 will require simplification if it is to be of practical avail. 

In Scotland, the year was notable for the completion of the Glasgow-Inverness road, the Glenalbyn section of which was opened to traffic by the Minister of Transport last autumn. Further reference to this great undertaking is made under the heading of Roads and Bridges, and it may here suffice to note that many fine bridges have been constructed along its line under the direction of consultants closely associated with the A.P.R.S. In particular, there is an example at Glenmoriston of a modern bridge which affords a new point of interest in a remarkably beautiful Highland In relation to the improvement of road communications, it may be noted that regular air services now ply from mainland centres to the outlying Islands, indicating again with what rapidity modern transport is facilitating intercourse: a forerunner through- out history of advance. It is not too much to infer that a new Scotland is in process of creation, and to many who may regard the extraordinary changes of our day with misgiving, particularly in relation to quietness and seclusion, and to the older manner and mode of life, it may be urged that the rising generation is no whit less enamoured of old Scotland than are their elders-indeed perhaps more so-and it is claimed that a renaissance is discernible. The remarkable growth of the Youth Hostel Movement within the past few years is proof of the appreciation of the youth of the country for outdoor life and beauty of scene. It would seem illogical to assume that such an impulse will lead to spoliation of what is prized, and in encouraging the Youth Hostel Movement the Association has acted on the contrary belief. As with the Ramblers, members of the Scottish Youth Hostels Association are pledged to good conduct, and with their help it may be anticipated that the evils of litter and ill-mannered forms of trespass will tend to disappear as the life of the country is more fully understood; but a transition period must be expected before public opinion can be relied upon as an ally in such matters. 

In this connection renewed attention has been given to the National Park question, which at the desire of the Council was reviewed in Committee last summer. After careful consideration of the Committee’s report, the Council was of the opinion that it would be outwith the province of the Association to advocate the acquisition of large areas of land for the purposes suggested, but it was decided to publish the substance of the report as explanatory of various aspects of the problem (vide p. 13). It may be that the Youth Hostel developments, coupled with the freedom of access which the people of Scotland have always enjoyed, is, in its way, superseding the conception of National Parks; but there is a school of thought earnestly desirous that the Government should acquire very extensive nature reserves to be removed positively from the vicissitudes of private ownership caprice or commercial exploitation, and controlled by a Department of State in the interests of the nation. The Council finds itself unable to accept this view. On the other hand, a suggestion arising out of the inquiry for the provision of considerable parks where natural conditions would pertain, and situated within easy reach of the great centres of population, is one which the greater Corporations and the County Councils might further consider. Such parks would probably be appreciated by townspeople, and would serve to minimise present difficulties in respect of public intrusion on farm lands, pastures, and policies. 

Disappointment is felt at the delay in respect of river purification, particularly of the Tweed, and also that the work of the Scottish Advisory Committee on Rivers Pollution Prevention was suspended for the greater part of last year. In consequence, the Committee’s recommendations for the better legislative control of river pollution are seriously deferred. It seems clear that protest is necessary. The subject is further dealt with under the appropriate heading. 

The question of legislation for the control of advertisement hoardings and signs in Scotland has received close attention during the year, and our President, Lord Haddington, has ener- getically pressed for expedition. A Bill which it is hoped to present shortly in Parliament, embodying the principle of Licensing, has been drafted by the Association of County Councils in Scotland, and will receive A.P.R.S. support. 

In conclusion it would seem that we may regard Scotland at present as in the first stage of a new movement of progressive development, in process of which anxious thought is being given to the problem of conserving and creating amenity both in country and in town; and here it may be remarked that the preservation of old buildings of architectural interest, or historical importance, is now the matter of much greater solicitude than formerly. In this work National Trust for Scotland, which was brought into being as a holding body at the instigation of the A.P.R.S. some few years ago, is proving an influential and effective ally. 

THE COUNCIL 

The deaths of the following members of Council are recorded with deep regret:- 

The Most Hon. The Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair. Sir John Samuel, K.B.E. (Rep. Holyrood Club). 

Mr J. T. Macdonald (Rep. Scottish Anglers’ Association). The resignations of the undernoted members have been accepted with regret:- 

Mr A. O. Curle. 

Dr T. Ratcliffe Barnett. 

Mr J. Lochhead. 

The following new members of Council are welcomed:- 

The Right Hon. The Countess of Minto. 

Mrs Cowan, Eastfield, Bowden. 

Sir Robert Greig. 

Sir John Sutherland. 

Mr GOgilvy of Winton. 

As also members representative of Constituent and Affiliated Societies on the Council:- 

Mr G. Pirie, President, R.S.A. 

Capt. A. E. Borthwick, President, R.S.W. 

Mr J. H. Burr, Scottish Youth Hostels Association. Mr T. Henderson, C.B.E., Holyrood Club, Glasgow. Mr C. H. Dodds, C.A., Scottish Anglers’ Association. 

The Council has met regularly on the first Wednesday of each month (August excepted), and attendances have been uniformly good. 

OFFICE PREMISES 

Members are desired to note that at Whitsunday 1935 the offices of the Association will be moved to 

44 Queen Street. 

Almost since its formation the Association has occupied premises at 3 Forres Street under lease, but a change of ownership necessitates removal at the approaching term. The removal date is 28th May. The new premises are conveniently situated a short distance from the west end of Queen Street, and will be on the first floor overlooking Heriot Row Gardens. 

PARLIAMENTARY AMENITY COMMITTEE 

At the joint suggestion of the Council of the A.P.R.S. and the Executive of the Glasgow Civic Society, an Amenity Committee representative of Scottish members was formed last autumn in the House of Commons under the Chairmanship of Sir Ian Mac- pherson. Mr J. G. Burnett, M.P. for North Aberdeen, acts as Hon. Secretary of a strong Committee, which will be in touch with Sir Percy Hurd’s corresponding group representative of interests in the South. 

The Committee has at present before it various considerations, including the regulation of advertisement hoardings and signs, housing amenity, and the pollution of rivers, and will be in touch with Lord Hamilton of Dalzell, Chairman of the Royal Fine Art Commission for Scotland. Mr Burnett will arrange for his Committee to be addressed from time to time on matters of special interest to Scotland in respect of the preservation of amenities. 

COUNTRY VISITS 

A number of district surveys were carried out last summer by parties of members, the first area to be visited being the Preston- pans and Humbie districts of East Lothian. Particular attention was paid to Hamilton Dower House in Preston village, an interest- ing example of early seventeenth-century Scottish domestic archi- tecture threatened with demolition under a road-widening scheme. Later, and arising out of discussion as to the possibilities of preser- vation, a further meeting took place at the site, as between Country and Burgh representatives, the Ancient Monuments Commissioners, Sir Joseph Dobbie representing the Public Works Loan Board, and A.P.R.S. members. Arrangements are now anticipated for the reconditioning of the Dower House for continued habitation. The old bridge at Humbie, also a seventeenth-century structure, has been widened by the Road Authority in such a manner as to preserve its characteristic appearance. 

A visit was also paid to Kincardine-on-Forth with a view to visualising the effect of the new bridge and its road connections in relation to the old town. Kincardine is situated in pleasant surroundings commanding a magnificent prospect northward, and much of the town retains its eighteenth-century character, when the place was a busy shipbuilding centre and quite a hive of industry. The bridge-head arrangements and road connections were discussed with County representatives and with the engineer in charge of the bridge construction, sundry suggestions being put before them, and also before Lord Elgin, with a view to the blend- ing of old and new features under a planning scheme. 

Early in June a visit was paid by the Chairman and a considerable party of members to the Strathyre district of Perthshire, where forestry operations were inspected under the guidance of Sir Roy Robinson, Chairman of the Forestry Commission, and Mr (now Sir) John Sutherland. Members of the Stirlingshire Branch took part in this outing, at the close of which a meeting was held in Callander, the Provost and other representatives of the district being present. The purpose of the visit was to consider the effect of forestry operations on the amenities of the Strathyre district. It was explained by the Commissioners that the land had been acquired by them for planting, but that the standing timber had At the been disposed of by the former owner to contractors. same time, arrangements had been made by the Commissioners for the preservation of certain stands of pine and deciduous trees for the sake of appearances. 

A tour of the Southern environs and approaches to Glasgow was made in July in conjunction with members of the Glasgow Civic Society, on which occasion the party was kindly entertained by Sir John Stirling Maxwell at Pollok House. The authorities in Renfrewshire have wisely adopted planning resolutions which have proved salutary. For instance, in a certain situation it was desired by interested parties to erect a large garage in an area zoned for residential purposes, but on appeal the Department of Health upheld the Local Authority. The point is mentioned as an example of the possibilities of control by planning. In the autumn the Organising Secretary had the opportunity of inspecting a large area in the Perthshire and Inverness-shire Highlands affected by hydro-electric developments, and also the route of the Glenalbyn road. The general impression of the former works, in respect of their engineering features, is that the wider panoramas are little disturbed. The same cannot be said where the Grid crosses skylines as it does between the Tummel valley and Aber- feldy and in the Sma’ Glen, or in the vicinity of Tummel Bridge, where the old charm is sadly marred by the new power-station, with its pipe lines, steel towers, transformers, etc. It will be recalled that exception was taken to the original form in which it was proposed to erect this building, and at the instigation of the A.P.R.S. the plans were submitted to a Statutory Amenity Committee. Improvement was effected, but no building of this sort with its inevitable accessories, as at present designed, can look at home in a Highland glen. 

ROADS AND BRIDGES 

An outstanding event last autumn was the opening by the Minister of Transport of the Glenalbyn road, the northmost section of the Glasgow-Inverness road via Glencoe. From first to last this great undertaking has occupied some nine years of labour, and the expenditure of approximately a million and a half sterling. A tribute is due to the engineering quality of the new highway, and it is pleasing to note that engineers have very frankly come to recognise the A.P.R.S. point of view in respect of the amenities of road construction. In a word, this is that drastic grading and mechanical excellence are not the whole aim, for with no sacrifice of efficiency the engineer may concede something. to natural features and so align and grade a roadway as to conform pleasingly to the swing of the land. By the Glencoe road the 30-mile stretch from Tyndrum to Carnach is implied. Thence the new road proceeds via Kinlochleven to North Ballachulish, and onward through Onich and Fort William by the Caledonian Canal (or Glenalbyn as it is now proposed to call this section) to Inverness. Great pains have been taken between Tyndrum and Kingshouse to plant and turf cuttings and bankings in order to con- ceal the unsightly scars left by contractors; though Major Hunt, the engineer in charge of the Glencoe section, was distressed that the funds at his disposal did not permit of the completion of this work beyond Kingshouse and through the Glen. At the invitation of the County Surveyor, an A.P.R.S. representative inspected the whole route in company with Major Hunt early last year, and subsequent A.P.R.S. recommendations led to further consideration of the matter by high officials of the Ministry of Transport. In consequence it is understood that ways and means will be found to complete, gradually, what is left undone. In the Glenalbyn section great care has been given to the bridging operations, with the result that from Kiachnish, near Fort William, to the head of Loch Ness a series of fine road bridges has been constructed under the guidance of Consulting Architects and Engineers closely associated with the A.P.R.S. The Glenalbyn route is of equal engineering quality to the Glencoe section, but yields rather more to the play of the land. Compared with the beautiful but tortuous old Highland road which it has replaced, the new road is perhaps a little monotonous-a concession which seems inevitable where a first-class modern highway is desired; but here again, what formerly was a rough, and in parts a dangerous, road may now be traversed with the greatest of ease and comfort. The economic importance of the whole undertaking to the Highlands must be great. Reference was made in the Introduction to the bridge at Invermoriston as an example of the possibilities of modern construction. The materials used are ferroconcrete, with a stone facing to harmonise with the rock masses of the picturesque gorge across which the bridge steps, and the opening for artistic treat- ment has been admirably utilised. It may further be remarked that the Glenalbyn bridges have proved very satisfactory in respect of cost. The point is significant, and disproves that cost is the stumbling-block where quality of design is sought. It is true that exiguous funds may be embarrassing, but conversely heavy ex- penditure is no substitute for lack of skill in design. 

Elsewhere two important road bridges have been the subject of consideration, viz. a new bridge to cross the River Orchy west- ward of Dalmally, and the revival of a project to bridge the ferry at Dornie. In the former case the A.P.R.S. (in the first instance), and subsequently the Royal Fine Art Commission for Scotland, were approached in respect of the design, and it is understood that a recommendation for the employment of a professional Consultant is likely to be acted upon. By courtesy of the Ross- shire County Council plans of the bridge at Dornie were put before the A.P.R.S. several years ago, and the modifications then suggested are at present before the Ministry of Transport. It may be of interest to remark that this bridge will probably be subject to a small toll for a period of years. 

Considerable funds are now being released by the Ministry of Transport under a policy of reconditioning, or replacing, obsolete bridges both in England and Scotland. In this connection the A.P.R.S. was recently consulted by the County Council of Peebles- shire in respect of the treatment of certain old bridges, of which Five Mile Bridge over Lyne Water is a good example. Both the architectural character of the bridge and its beautiful setting call for solicitude, and the joint desire of the County Road Com- mittee and of the A.P.R.S. is for reconditioning and the preserva- tion of existing features, rather than for a new road alignment and the construction, at considerable expense, of a lengthy viaduct. The case is mentioned as typical of a certain divergence of view, for the drastic replacement of picturesque old bridges seems by no means necessary in many cases. On country roads it is common experience that situations where the need for cautious driving is obvious are those where very few casualties occur. 

NOTE. Since the foregoing was written, the Ministry of Trans- port has issued recommendations to Local Authorities in respect of the artistic quality of bridges. It is pointed out that bridges are marked features of the landscape. Old bridges may in some cases be reconditioned, and the design of new bridges should be studied in view of their longevity. 

THE POLLUTION OF RIVERS 

Last year it was possible to report progress in respect of the purification of rivers, but there has since been serious delay, as the investigations of the Scottish Advisory Committee on Rivers Pollution Prevention were unfortunately suspended for the greater part of the period under review. The delay is regrettable, as the Committee has still a large field of inquiry to overtake in relation to conditions on the Forth and the Clyde before formulating its ultimate findings and recommendations. Inter alia, standards of purity have to be determined where total purification is un- obtainable, in order that the degree of pollution may be relatively innocuous. It has been frequently pointed out that the difficulty under the present law is the multiplication of Authorities who are responsible for its enforcement, of whom some few are themselves the worst polluters of rivers. The stumbling-block is the cost of installing purification plants, especially where rates are already high; but a grievance is very naturally felt by Burghs which have installed plants at considerable cost, only to find that their neigh- bours up or down stream nullify their efforts by continued pollution. In consequence, dissatisfaction is finding expression, particularly in respect of the Tweed and its tributaries, which in many parts are polluted by sewage to a degree which is disgusting, despite the fact that these conditions were reported upon in detail by the Scottish Advisory Committee in 1931. It was anticipated that the steps taken at Selkirk, where an effective purification plant was installed in 1933, and the promise of similar steps at Peebles, would by this time have removed the more serious causes of pollution, but inquiry shows that much remains to be done. Measures are therefore being taken by the Association to influence public opinion, and to urge upon the Authorities concerned the need for action. The purification of the river is an attainable object, and dissatis- faction will continue until matters are righted. 

It may be mentioned that some of the smaller rivers flowing into the Firth of Forth are so badly polluted by all kinds of sewage and refuse that they are practically open sewers, and little attempt is made even to mitigate the evil, which indeed has become worse in recent years. A drastic improvement is needed, and a portion of the money to be spent in relieving unemployment could be most usefully devoted to assisting the construction of sewage works, if there were imposed on the districts the duty of maintaining these works in effective condition. 

NATIONAL PARKS 

In view of a renewal of interest in the National Park question, it was decided in Council to undertake a further survey of this problem, upon which opinions diverge widely. In consequence, a Special Committee was appointed with the object of clarifying the subject. 

The substance of their report follows, but in the meantime the Council is not persuaded that there is any general demand for a large-scale National Park, or that such an undertaking, under present conditions, would serve a definite national need. Should such a need arise, it is hoped that the Committee’s suggestions will be a guide. 

The Committee decided to consider the problem under the following headings:- 

1. General definition of Parks and their purposes. 2. Area. 

3. Finance. 

4. Administration. 

With regard to the definition of Parks and their purposes, the Committee were of the opinion that there are several kinds of Parks, differing in size, in situation, and in character. The name of “Park” may not be appropriate to all, but it has been used for such widely different areas, as Hyde Park in London and the Kruger Park in South Africa, that the name appears to be all- embracing. 

CITY PARKS 

London shows many examples-Hyde Park, Regent’s Park, Kensington Gardens, Hampstead Heath, Epping Forest, Bushy Park, Richmond Park, and many others. Some are cultivated and some left comparatively wild, but all are so easily accessible as to serve for recreation even in a spare hour. 

PARKS NEAR TO A CITY 

The park adjacent to a city, but in the country, so that a journey of some miles is required, is suited for a day or half-day excursion. This type is only beginning, although fifty years ago Epping Forest and Richmond Park would have been put in this class. Glasgow has one such park, and the need of them is becoming recognised. They afford a complete change from the city, quiet and comparatively solitude, and fresh interests. Their character should be different from the city park, preferably with hill and water, woods and moor, so far as these can be obtained within a moderate distance from the adjacent city, but the time and money spent on the journey should not put them beyond the reach of the artisan and his family. 

NOTE. The following outline suggests various considerations in respect of parks of large area, and is presented in order that there may be an understanding of the factors involved. 

NATIONAL PARK 

The more definitely National Park will be of much larger area. Several purposes have been put forward, and if they are not con- sistent with one another different kinds of Parks will be required. 

The Committee thinks in general that the objects of a National Park may be taken to be- 

1. To secure an area remarkable for natural beauty, in which people of all classes may for all time, in freedom and by right, enjoy wild and romantic scenery. 

2. To provide for the reasonable preservation of flora and 

fauna in such an area. 

3. To preserve exceptionally picturesque areas from injury to 

their natural beauty. 

The first object will be fulfilled by an area of suitable character and position, some two hundred square miles in size, though a larger area will not be excessive. While its primary object is for the enjoyment of visitors, its use as a reserve for fauna and flora will enhance the attraction, and its picturesque character should be carefully preserved. Areas for the definite protection of fauna or flora will require a different treatment, access by visitors being restricted, as the primary object of these areas is for scientific study and for the preservation of rare plants and animals. 

Parts of the lands taken by the Forestry Commission are not suitable for afforestation, and the following letter from Sir John Sutherland indicates that these parts may be available for one or other of the above purposes. 

“I have been asked by the Chairman, Sir Roy Robinson, to inform you that the Commission is generally agreeable to the idea that hinterlands might be used for recreational purposes provided that the plantations can be adequately protected, and that the expense of using the land for recreational purposes is not borne by the Commission.” 

The question of the hinterlands of afforestation areas can scarcely be considered as one susceptible of a single mode of treatment. While the areas have one characteristic in common-that they are hill and moorland country-they vary so greatly in size, in accessi- bility, and in picturesqueness that each requires individual con- sideration. 

FINANCE 

The probable cost of the acquisition of an area of approximately 200 square miles of deer forest may be about £50,000 under the most favourable conditions of purchase, but for more productive ground a considerably larger sum will be required. It is believed that the sums indicated come within the range of private munificence, and that if there is a widespread desire for such a Park its realisa- tion would be possible. 

ADMINISTRATION 

The promotion of a National Park or Parks, at least in the earlier stages, may best be handled by some voluntary and re- presentative body of Trustees working under a constitution which is not too limited in scope. The activities of such a Trust may include 

1. Consultation and co-operation with appropriate Government 

Departments. 

2. Preparation of a programme covering Parks and Reserves 

of different classes. 

3. Formulation of definite schemes, some by negotiation with Government or Local Authorities, others by way of appeal to private generosity. 

4. Development of a system of administration based on intimate and sympathetic control through co-option of members with local knowledge and interest. 

The management and administration of a large Park will require a Curator with a small office, and a staff of wardens or keepers, who will supervise the Park during the visiting part of the year, and will carry out repairs and improvements and the necessary shooting and trapping of superabundant animals during the winter. It is estimated that the total cost of salaries, wages, and materials may amount to £5000 per annum. Some hostels and boarding-houses would also be required, the cost of which would depend on existing buildings, and also upon the scale which might be decided and on the area selected. The capital cost of hostels, etc. would be part of the capital cost of the general scheme, but such hostels would be so managed as to be self-supporting. 

The annual upkeep could be provided by public money, part coming from the towns, part from other local authorities, and part from the Treasury. The town and county portions would be derived from the rates, and it is anticipated that the cost per £ of rateable value would be a very small fraction of a penny-thus a rate of 1/20 of a penny in the £ from the Royal and Parliamentary Burghs alone will produce a sum of £5000, which means that the contribution from a household in a house rated at £50 would be only 2d. per annum. Many people from England would make use of a Scottish National Park, and it would therefore seem reasonable to expect support from Government through a Treasury grant. 

The preservation of the exceptional beauty of some areas in the country, both small and large, is a matter quite apart from the idea of a National Park, although the two may be of mutual assistance. The areas in question are too numerous and in some cases far too large to allow of purchase for public ownership. For their preservation from destruction by unheeding industrial development, or by unsuitable buildings of any kind, the powers given by the Town and Country Planning Act, 1932, can be employed, and the Local Authorities may be urged to exercise these powers before the lands are threatened. There are many stretches of ground along the banks of rivers and the sides of lochs which are of small value as land, but possess rare beauty of peculiarly Scottish character, and their degradation will be a national loss. Other and larger districts consisting of remote glens and lochs constitute a most precious possession, and their preservation should be considered a national duty. 

NOTE.-In general, the feeling of the Council is for the protection of scenery, as against the public acquisition of large areas of land. Powers in respect of country planning are there- fore indicated below. 

Under the Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act of 1932 power is given to the Local Authority (County Council or com- bination of two or more County Councils) to construct a scheme over an area for various purposes. The powers which may be used for the preservation of Highland areas are given below. 

Section 1. A scheme may be made under this Act with respect to any land. . . with the general object of controlling the develop- ment of the land comprised in the area to which the scheme applies .. and of preserving . . . places of natural beauty or interest, and generally of protecting existing amenities. 

Section 6. (1) A Local Authority or joint committee may prepare a scheme for land within or in the neighbourhood of their districts, or adopt a scheme proposed by all or any of the landowners. (2) The scheme must be approved by the Department, and they must be satisfied 

. . 

(b) in the case of land which is neither already built upon. 

nor likely to be developed, that . . . it comprises objects or places of natural interest or beauty. Section 11. (1) (a) The scheme “shall contain such provisions as are necessary or expedient for prohibiting or regulating the development of land in the area to which the scheme applies.” 

Section 19. (1) Gives the conditions under which no compensa- tion shall be paid to the proprietors on account of injurious affection of property through the operation of the scheme. The only conditions of present interest are- 

(g) “which restricts the manner in which buildings may be 

used”; 

(2) which limits “the number or prescribes the sites of new roads entering an existing classified road, or a proposed new classified road.” 

Section 33. (1) Allows of a proprietor agreeing with the Author- ity that his land be made subject, either permanently or for a specified period, to conditions restricting the planning, development, or use thereof, in any manner in which those matters might be dealt with under a scheme, and this shall be enforceable against subsequent owners. 

The Authority in this may be the Local Authority, or a responsible authority not being a Local Authority. (There is no definition of this “responsible authority.”) 

Section 45. (1) In a scheme the provisions for “securing amenity and the protection of existing amenities may include provisions for the preservation of single trees or groups of trees, and in addition may specify areas of woodland as areas to be protected under this section.” 

EXHIBITIONS AND LANTERN LECTURES 

There has been an encouraging demand for exhibition material during the period covered by the Report, and photographic exhibits have been loaned by the Association for display at- 

1. The “Scotland Calling” Exhibition in London, under the 

auspices of the Scottish Travel Association. 

2. The Health and Housing Exhibition in the Kelvin Hall, 

Glasgow, in co-operation with the Glasgow Institute of Architects. 

3. The Cycling and Camping Exhibition in the McLellan 

Galleries, Glasgow. 

Much interest was shown in London in a series of fine photo- graphs taken by the Rev. A. E. Robertson illustrating Highland scenery, with special relation to the effects of hydro-electric projects on lochs and rivers. 

With regard to the Health and Housing Exhibition in Glasgow, the Secretary of the Glasgow Institute of Architects has written as follows:- 

“The exhibits sent by you were extremely useful. . . . My Council considered that the effort in holding a stall has been very successful.” 

In this connection it may be mentioned that similar material has been loaned to the Edinburgh Architectural Association for a Housing Exhibition in Edinburgh. The A.P.R.S. exhibits, with their accompanying notes, are effective in demonstrating archi- tectural features, and the nature of styles and materials suitable to Scotland. 

Lantern demonstrations and lectures have been delivered by the Organising Secretary on several occasions at different centres, under the auspices of such bodies as the Glasgow Civic Society, the Edinburgh Typographia, and the Scottish Youth Hostels Association. Invitations were also accepted to give illustrated lectures in Selkirk, Dumfries, Fort Augustus (to the boys of the Abbey School), and elsewhere. In order to extend the possibilities of lantern demonstrations, arrangements are being made for the preparation of sets of slides, with appropriate notes, for the use by lecturers in Branch areas. The method of demonstration followed is to exhibit contrasting pictures, showing as clearly as possible features which make or mar appearances in the country- side. Experience shows that graphic propaganda of this nature is of much interest to audiences. 

BRANCHES 

A Branch of the Association was formed in Dumfriesshire last autumn, with the following office-bearers:- 

President 

Vice-President Chairman of Committee Hon. Secretary 

Sir John Buchanan-Jardine, Bt. 

Mr David Landale. 

Mr Walter Duncan. 

Miss I. H. K. Beattie, A.R.I.B.A. 

(Breconrae, Dumfriesshire). 

By courtesy of Mr Landale the preliminary arrangements were made at a meeting and garden-party held in the grounds of Dal- swinton early in September. 

The organisation of the Border Branch (including the four Counties of Berwick, Roxburgh, Selkirk, and Peebles) has been developed during the course of the year, and County Secretaries and Committees have been appointed. The Council of the Branch meets half-yearly at Kelso, in June and December. 

The Association is now represented by Branch formations covering the whole of the Border Counties, Dumfriesshire, and Galloway, so that there should be every opportunity of protecting the amenities of these extensive and beautiful regions of Scotland should any serious menace arise. Contact has been kept with the Stirling and District Branch, and with the outlying Branches in Cowal and in Moray and Nairn. Elsewhere the Association is in touch with various districts of Scotland through affiliations, as with the active Glasgow Civic Society, and in Aberdeenshire with the Deeside Field Club. It is hoped that future Branch formations may include the Counties of Ayr, Renfrew, Perth, and Fife. In Angus there is a proposal for affiliation with the Rural Community Council. The Lothians are in very close relation to the Edinburgh Headquarters. The Highland Counties with their sparse popula- tion and great areas require consideration of a special nature, as it would be difficult for Branches to operate in these regions. 

A Conference of Branch representatives was held in Edinburgh in February, and the principles of a uniform constitution were agreed upon. It was decided that finance should be centralised at Headquarters, Branches being entitled to a substantial ratio of the subscriptions received from members in Branch areas. Full subscribing members are primarily members of the A.P.R.S. as a body, but automatically become members of the Branch within whose area they may reside. If Branches should desire to do so, local subscribers may be enrolled at a minimum rate of 2s. 6d., with local voting powers only. 

For the information of members the following list may be useful:- 

Stirling and District Branch 

Border Branch 

Dumfriesshire Branch 

Galloway Branch 

Cowal Branch. 

Hon. Sec., E. S. Bell, Esq., 

Cranston Hill, Stirling. 

Hon. Sec., R. Stormonth Darling, Esq., W.S., Woodmarket, Kelso. Hon. Sec., Miss I. H. K. Beattie, 

Breconrae, Dumfries. 

Hon. Sec., Mr A. McCormick, Royal Bank, Newton Stewart. Hon. Sec., C. B. Lockie, Esq., 

Ferry Brae, Dunoon. 

Moray and Nairn Branch. Hon. Sec., Col. J. E. Tennant, 

Innes House, Elgin. 

FINANCES 

(Statement overleaf) 

Subscriptions from all sources, including the due proportion of Life Members’ payments, amount to £314, an increase of £14 over last year. There are 17 new Life Members, and the Life Member- ship Fund now stands at £1051. The balance of receipts over expenditure for the year is £85, which reduces the floating deficit to £625. This is borrowed from the Life Membership Fund. Donations of £71 have been very helpful, and materially assist the credit balance. 

The expenditure, £715, is £15 less than last year, notwith- standing an increase in printing, postages, and other office activities. The formation of new branches has involved some expenditure, and additional branches will be welcomed. While this will cause some increase in office expenses and local expenses, it may be hoped that the development will produce a substantial increase in the membership and the subscription list. 

The grant of £400 per annum from the Carnegie Trust will shortly cease, as it was granted to enable the Association to tide over the difficult years of early growth. As 

the financial position of the country for the last three years has not been favourable to subscription lists, the Trust has agreed to continue the grant on a decreasing scale for a few years, but it is a matter of much urgency that the income of the Association from its members should be substantially increased, so that it may become self-supporting. 

THE ASSOCIATION FOR THE PRESERVATION OF RURAL SCOTLAND STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS 

For the Year ended 31st December 1934 

EDINBURGH, 15th March 1935.-We have examined the Books and Accounts of the Association for the Preservation of Rural Scotland, submitted to us for the year ended 31st December 1934, with the vouchers and other instructions, and we have found them correct. We have seen the securities for the invested funds. 

WHITSON & METHUEN, C.A., Hon. Auditors. 

To the Hon. Treasurer, 

ENROLMENT OR DONATION FORM 

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